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Recent posts:

Healy Block Residential Historic District – 3137 Second Ave So: Healy-Forbes House Healy Block Residential Historic District – Architecture Healy Block Residential Historic District – an Introduction Anders Christensen Receives Preservation Alliance of Minnesota Executive Director’s Award Anders Christensen’s Remarks on Receiving Preservation Alliance of Minnesota Award Healy Project Fundraiser at the Lowbrow, May 7th Winter Party Fundraiser December 2017 Talk: Preservation Advocacy, August 17th Open House at 1300 Mount Curve Avenue East Lake of the Isles Walking Tour May 21st New Research on the “Lost” Healy Block: Tour May 7th A Presentation on Master Builders Ingham and Parsons, Saturday, March 18th. Healy Project Winter Party Henry Ingham’s Yorkshire Healy Project Fundraiser at the Lowbrow, May 9th Healy Block Historic District Tour: April 17th Healy Project Holiday Old House Reception CANCELED–Healy Block Historic District Walking Tour–November 8 More Hauntings: Houses Built by Henry Ingham Healy House Hauntings Tour Intro to the History of the North Wedge North Wedge Architectural Walking Tour, October 3rd Healy Phoenix #2 Healy Phoenix #1 Report on the Event: A Great Dinner for a Good Cause A Child’s View of T.P. Healy’s Family Big Win for Healy Block Residents: Revised I-35W Expansion Plan T.P. Healy: Farmer, Commission Merchant & Wholesale Grocer in Nova Scotia Open April 25th: Restored 1885 House in Wedge Learn from the Past, Learn from the Present Grandstanding and Stonewalling at City Hall: Trashing the Public Trust Orth House Demolition An Open Letter to Minneapolis City Council Regarding the Orth House Demolition The Truth Will Out II: More Lies That Brought Down 2320 Colfax Avenue South The Truth Will Out: Lies that Brought Down 2320 Colfax Avenue South Judge Denies Injunction against Wrecking 2320 Colfax Avenue South Poisoning the Well: Testimony about 2320 Colfax Avenue South “City Ghosts” Visit Victorian House Historic North Wedge Walking Tour: Sunday, September 7th Combining New and Old: A New Vision for the Orth House A Place That Matters Healy Project Files Suit to Stop Demolition of the Orth House Happy Earth Day, Zero-Credibility City of Minneapolis Stop Demolition: Allow a designation study for the Orth House Perverting New Urbanism II: Greenwashing Demolition Perverting New Urbanism for Fun and Profit Size Matters: Development at Franklin-Lyndale DEN$ITY: Building Utopia in Gopher City Hypocrisy at City Hall: Planning Department Scorns Sustainable Development Déjà Vu All Over Again: Threats to Healy Houses Renewed Healy Project Special Kickoff Tour Saving Private Houses In Landmark Decision, City Council Stops Demolition of 2320 Colfax Avenue South What’s the Greenest Building? Who Lives in Lowry Hill East? Revoltin’ Developments VI: What You Can Do Revoltin’ Developments V: Sappy Citizens and Maudlin Attachments Revoltin’ Developments IV: Density and City Planning Revoltin’ Developments III: Density and Livability Revoltin’ Developments II: Healy Houses in the Wedge Revoltin’ Developments, Part I Healy Descendant Acquires the Bennett-McBride House On Memorial Day Lost Healys on the Healy Block More Lost Healys The Broom House: 3111 Second Avenue South More on Round Hill Happy Birthday, T.P. The Edmund G. Babbidge House: 3120 Third Avenue South Brightening the Corner: 3101 Second Avenue South 2936 Portland Avenue The Andrew H. Adams House: 3107 Second Avenue South Clones: 2932 Park and 1425 Dupont North The J.B. Hudson House: 3127 Second Avenue South Second Healy Family Home: 3131 Second Avenue South Schlocked: ‎2639-41 Bryant Avenue South 1976 Sheridan Avenue South: Preserved Exterior The William L. Summer House, 3145 Second Avenue South Two More in the Wedge Weapon of Mass Healy Destruction: I-35W Construction The Third: Healy Builds in the Wedge The Second: 3139 Second Avenue South Healy’s First House: 3137 Second Avenue South Anders Christensen, T.P.Healy, and the Healy Project

A Presentation on Master Builders Ingham and Parsons, Saturday, March 18th.

Free Library Event.
Walker Library. 2880 Hennepin Ave. S. Minneapolis. 612.543.8400

             HENRY INGHAM                    Henry Parsons

From Yorkshire to Minneapolis: The Architectural Legacy of Master Builders Henry Ingham and Henry Parsons

Saturday, March 18th, 1-3 p.m.
A presentation by Trilby Busch and Anders Christensen of the Healy Project
Along with theron potter healy, ingham and Parsons are the “Big Three” master Builders of turn-of-the-century minneapolis. Take a Virtual tour of north and west Yorkshire, england, the home country of ingham and parsons, followed by a presentation of the buildings they designed and built in minneapolis.

2432 Bryant Ave. S., Ingham 1899

2504 Euclid Place.,  Parsons 1909

For more information, see these posts on this blog:
“Henry Ingham’s Yorkshire” August 10, 2016 and “More Hauntings: Houses by Henry Ingham” October 24, 2015

On Sunday, February 12, Healy Project supporters, neighbors, and members of the Healy family met at an 1895 Healy-built house in the Wedge. They celebrated the restoration of the house’s interior following a fire and looked forward to a year of special projects and new research regarding the life and works of T.P. Healy. Every inch of the surface of the interior had to be cleaned, and refinished or repainted after the fire.

Healy Project Treasurer Christina Langsdorf signing in guests.

Healy homeowner and board member Dennis Tuthill (center).

Hostess Andy Thaden (beige sweater) chatting with guests.

Host and HP Secretary Gary Thaden, the third attorney to own the house.

Reflections in the buffet mirror.

Healy homeowner Meg Tuthill (far right) and neighbor Audrey Johnson surveying the treats.

Former HP board members Nat Forbes and Karen Gjerstad (left) with John and Denise Erler. Nat won the door prize, “A Place at the Lake” by Paul Clifford Larson.

The mantelpiece and built-in bookcases in the back parlor.

Leonard Healy (seated), the descendant of Theron’s brother Anderson.

HP President Anders Christensen (right), with host Gary Thaden.

HP Administrator Trilby Busch (right) and Kathy Healy Mendelkoch examining the award that Kathy accepted for Charles Woodrich, T.P.’s grandson.

A copy of the building permit, with T.P. Healy’s name at the top.

Lowry Hill Healy homeowner Robert Hinck checking in.

Ceridwen Christensen in the front parlor.

The window in the front second-floor bedroom.

Photos by Richard Mueller

British Railways Riddles 'Standard' 9F 2-10-0 locomotive number 92220 EVENING STAR of York MPD crosses Knaresborough Viaduct. Wikimedia)

British Railways Riddles ‘Standard’ 9F 2-10-0 locomotive number 92220 EVENING STAR of York MPD crosses Knaresborough Viaduct. Wikimedia

I have always admired the work of  Henry Ingham, a native of Knaresborough, Yorkshire, and one of Minneapolis’s “Big Three” master builders. But I never thought about visiting Knaresborough until I met a woman from Durham, England, on a 2014 trip to Norway. “Oh, you must visit Knaresborough,” she exclaimed. “It’s one of the most historic, quaint, and  beautiful cities in North Yorkshire.” And so, last spring I planned a visit.  (For a brief bio of Ingham, see

Historic Knaresborough railway station, on the Harrogate line. Wikipedia.

Historic Knaresborough railway station, on the Harrogate line. Wikipedia.

In July I flew into Manchester, then took the train to Knaresborough, changing trains in Leeds. The train pulled into the charming old station, and I crossed the tracks and started up the very steep hill to my B&B. I had hoped to meet with local architectural historians, but my inquiries from the ‘States weren’t answered. However, as luck would have it, as I walked around town later that afternoon looking for Wellington Street, the 1861 and 1871 addresses of the Ingham family, I came upon some locals having a brew outside the pub. One of them kindly took me to the home of David Druett, a local historian who lives just around the corner from Wellington Street.  From him I learned that only a few of the old houses on Wellington Street remain. It’s likely that the Inghams’ residences at #69 and #110 on that street were demolished for a post-WWII government housing project. Druett said that the three remaining old houses are workers’ houses from the 1840s, constructed cheaply (for that time), with relatively thin walls.

david's house with projects

The front of David’s house on Brewerton Street with the postwar housing projects visible across Wellington Street.

Wellington Street at the corner of Brewerton.

Wellington Street at the corner of Brewerton

It was a disappointment to find the two Ingham residences gone, along with most of old Wellington Street, so I turned my attention to what does remain in Knaresborough. What kind of influences on Ingham’s designs might I find?

Needless to say, the history of Knaresborough, an old market town, goes way back into antiquity. The first recorded mention of Knaresborough is in the Domesday Book, 1086. The Normans built a fortified castle on the bluff overlooking the River Nidd in the 1100s. The ruins of the 14th century castle, built by King Edward II, still remain. The castle was not ravaged by time, however, but by the Parliamentarians during the (English) Civil War. In 1648 demolition of the Royalists’ castle complex began. It would have been totally wrecked if the townspeople hadn’t petitioned to leave the King’s Tower remaining for use as a prison.

The iconic King's Tower.

The iconic King’s Tower.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries Knaresborough’s economic base was the textile industry.  The linen mill on the river began operating in 1791. “The structure might previously have been used as a paper mill, and adapted to new use shortly after November 1790 when a new water wheel was planned. Castle Mills was converted to flax spinning for linen in 1811 and Walton and Company leased it in 1847 for yarn spinning and power loom weaving, which took place in other buildings on the site. Linen production ceased in 1972 and Walton left the site in 1984.” [–from the designation of the Castle Mill building as a listed historic site].

The linen mill and weir in an old postcard. Courtesy Pat Wood.

The linen mill and weir in an old postcard. Courtesy Pat Wood.

Yorkshire was an industrial area throughout the Victorian period, known for its textile mills (linen, cotton, wool) large and small. In keeping with its new prosperity and importance, Yorkshire’s civic and institutional buildings were designed to impress.  They’re massive and imposing, built of durable brick or stone.

One side of the market square, Town Hall at far right.

Buildings on Market Place, Knaresborough, Town Hall at far right.

The Bradford Old Bank Building (cuurently Barklays Bank)

The Bradford Old Bank Building, currently Barklays Bank (Photo by Gordon Hatton)

While many pre-1900 cottages and houses were demolished during periods of “urban removal” through the centuries, many remain. Of course, I was primarily interested in the buildings from the mid- to late-nineteenth century.  Knaresborough’s Victorian houses have primarily stone or stucco exteriors. I discovered that some of the remaining mid-century buildings are embellished with the Neo-Classical ornaments that Ingham loved.

Capitals, pillars, brackets, quoins, flower emblems

Capitals, pillars, brackets, faux quoins, flower emblems on a building on Kirkgate Street

Wellington 3

The three houses remaining on Wellington Street built in the 1840s. Note the ornamental cornice on the one at right.

Here are some photos of typical Victorian buildings in Knaresborough:

wellington pub

The Wellington Inn, an old tavern that was standing when the Inghams lived on the street.


The Primitive Methodist Chapel, built 1851, (now apartments) in the courtyard behind the Wellington Street houses.

The Primitive Methodist Chapel, built 1851, (now apartments) in the courtyard behind the Wellington Street houses.

Steep Kirkgate Street, ascending from the train station to the town center.

Steep Kirkgate Street, ascending from the train station to the town center.

The Gracious Street Methodist Church Hall, with image of John Wesley. Wesley, the founder of Methodism, visited Knaresborough a number of times and left his mark on the town.

The Gracious Street Methodist Church Hall, with image of John Wesley. Wesley, the founder of Methodism, visited Knaresborough a number of times and left his mark on the town. The inghams were Methodists, as was the other Minneapolis master builder from West Yorkshire, Henry Parsons.

An old stableyard off Kirkgate.

An old stableyard off Kirkgate Street.

trompe l'oie

Playful contemporary trompe l’oeil (fool the eye) painted door and window on the side of an old building on Market Place.

This is just a guess, but young Henry Ingham must have seen that there were not many opportunities for making a career as a master carpenter or builder of wood frame houses in North Yorkshire. Sometime between 1871 and Thomas Ingham’s death in 1881, the family moved to the industrial city of Bradford, West Yorkshire. Armed with his certification as a master carpenter and joiner, in 1883 Henry Ingham, accompanied by his brother Alfred, lit off for the prairie boom town of Minneapolis. There in 1884 the Inghams built their first house at 3020 First Avenue South (wrecked in 1963 for freeway construction, as were so many of Healy’s houses).

Thomas Ingham family after his funeral, Bradford, Yorkshire, 1881. Henry is second from left, back row.

Thomas Ingham family after his funeral, Bradford, Yorkshire, 1881. Henry standing at far left, back row.

Ingham's certificate of indentureship as apprentice to Lot Brayshaw, carpenter and joiner of Knaresborough, 23 July 1868.

Henry Ingham’s papers of indenture as apprentice to Lot Brayshaw, carpenter and joiner of Knaresborough, 23 July 1868.

In 1890, Henry began designing and building houses on his own, and Alfred’s name disappears from the building permits. In his long career, 1884-1913, Henry built over 120 structures, including houses, apartment buildings, barns, and architect-designed residences. The interiors of his houses show exquisite craftsmanship in the millwork and cabinetry; the exteriors have a classical, understated grace. Yorkshire’s loss was Minnesota’s gain. In turn-of-the-century Minneapolis, master carpenter-builder Henry Ingham found his métier.

3146 Portland Ave. S. 1892, $6.000. The "Pink Ingham." A flamboyant Ingham transitional Queen Anne, decked out for Halloween. (Photo by Madeline Douglass)

3146 Portland Ave. S. 1892, $6.000. The “Pink Ingham.” A flamboyant Ingham transitional Queen Anne, decked out for Halloween. (Photo by Madeline Douglass)

2432 Bryant Ave. S. 1899, $3,200. Ingham built this for Emma Goetzenberger, who apparently had excellent taste in builders. Healy and Purcell also designed and built houses for her in the Wedge.

2432 Bryant Ave. S. 1899, $3,200. Ingham built this for Emma Goetzenberger, who apparently had excellent taste in builders. Healy and Purcell also designed and built houses for her in the Wedge.

1800 Fremont Ave. S., 1902, $12,500. One of Ingham's brick structures.

1800 Fremont Ave. S., 1902, $12,500. One of Ingham’s brick structures.


Many thanks to Kathy Kullberg and Ezra Gray for researching the Ingham family in Yorkshire. Thanks also to David Druett  for giving me a glimpse into Victorian Knaresborough.

Ingham building research by Anders Christensen.

Photos without source noted are by Trilby Busch. Please credit if you reuse.

Roofline of Victorian rowhouses in Knaresborough, with TV antennas and modern street light.

Roofline of Victorian rowhouses in Knaresborough, with TV antennas and modern street light.

The Healy Project is planning a tour of Ingham houses in the not-too-distant future. Watch this blog for notices.



Henry Ingham

Henry Ingham

Henry Ingham was a master builder contemporary with T.P. Healy. Originally from Knaresborough, Yorkshire, Ingham arrived in Minneapolis armed with royal certification as a master carpenter. He began building two years before Healy, in 1884, and was active until 1933. To date, researchers have found 144 structures with Ingham’s name on the building permits (similar to Healy’s output). Along with fellow Englishman Henry Parsons, Ingham and Healy make up the “Big Three” of Minneapolis master builders. Unlike Healy, Ingham is known primarily not for his design skills, but for his exquisite craftsmanship as a carpenter.  One of his houses has built-in hardwood cabinets and drawers in every closet, including those used by the servants.

Knaresborough, Yorkshire

Knaresborough, Yorkshire. As you can see, this town would offer a lot more opportunities for a mason than for a carpenter.

It should come as no surprise that I’ve heard stories about haunted Ingham houses. Here are a few I’ve collected over the years:

Occupants of a house built by Ingham and used as a mixed-use office/residence told stories of footsteps sounding in the halls and  staircase at night, and lights in the kitchen going off and on when no one was in the room.  One resident, “Doug,” said that he had heard the back door open and shut several times in the middle of the night, but when he went out to investigate, no one was inside or outside.  None of the tenants much liked going into a dark, small room off the kitchen, and they used it solely as a storage area. Formerly a rooming house and previous to that, a boarding house, the house has had many residents over the years. Apparently at least one of the departed  former  tenants has chosen to hang around.

An 1880's Ingham Queen Anne.

An 1890 Ingham Queen Anne.

Several blocks away is a single-family Ingham house that has had at least one revenant put in an appearance or two.  The family w ho lived there in the ’70s and ’80s told me a number of stories about their paranormal experiences at the house. When “Karen” and “Dave” moved in, even though they liked the house, they frequently got the feeling that the house wasn’t completely theirs, as if someone else’s presence still persisted in certain rooms.  One night Karen and a friend came to the house, entering through the back door. The rest of the family wasn’t at home, and for a while the two women puttered around in the kitchen, reluctant to leave it. Finally, the friend remarked, “Don’t you feel like running through the house, looking under the beds?”  The friends shared a laugh, but then both admitted that they strongly felt a presence in the house and were not eager to leave the kitchen.  After a while, this feeling passed, and they ventured into the parlor without incident.

The dining room in a 1901 Ingham house, c. 1947.

The dining room in a 1901 Ingham house, circa 1947.

The couple’s daughter, who was three at the time they moved in, quickly acquired the unorthodox habit of leaving her room in the middle of the night to sleep in the hallway.  She continued this practice two or three times a week for several years, yet could not explain why she felt the need to leave her room. One night, Karen decided to sleep in the daughter’s room and see what, if anything, would happen. She was awakened by the disturbing impression of hearing a hell-and-brimstone sermon delivered by a male voice. The disembodied voice, like that of a sidewalk evangelist, harangued an invisible audience about sin and perdition.

A restored Ingham on Bryant Avenue.

A restored Ingham on Bryant Avenue.

“Dave” also had a curious experience. He was working in the backyard when a strange old man carrying a violin case appeared at the gate. Pointing to the window of their son’s bedroom at the back of the house, the man said that he had lived in that room for nearly 25 years.  He had stopped by because he had recently been having recurring dreams about being in the house.  He did not know why this was happening, only that it had become a regular, unsettling occurrence.

Their son had an encounter with the ghost, but only once.  As he was coming out of his room one morning, he saw a misty figure emerge from the bathroom, turn to look at him, and disappear into his sister’s room. The apparition was that of a middle-aged man, his mousy brown hair wet as though he had just washed it.  Was this ghost and the unseen hellfire evangelist one and the same?  They never did find out.

An Ingham house on Girard, wrecked decades ago.

An Ingham house on Girard, wrecked decades ago.

Across town multiple residents of another Ingham house have felt the presence of the ghost of a little boy. “Mike” lived in the large house for a while.  Many years before he moved in, a mother and her two-year-old son were brutally murdered in an arson fire in the house next door. Mike knew this but his partner “Ron” did not. Therefore, Mike was surprised when Ron told him that he frequently felt the presence of a small boy, but Ron never actually saw the child. Mike was pretty freaked out when Ron said that the boy would often crawl under their bed.

After Mike and Ron moved out, their friend “Jon” rented the house. Jon, like Ron, knew nothing of the fire that had killed the woman and boy.  He worked out of the house as a massage therapist.  One woman client, after coming back for several sessions in the house, asked Jon if he was aware that the house was haunted. He said that he did not and asked her who the ghost was. “A little boy,” she replied.

A large Wedge Ingham, wrecked for an apartment building.

A large Wedge Ingham, wrecked for an apartment building.

Mike had another strange experience with the house. Mike and Ron brought their cat Midnight with them when they moved into the house on Halloween a decade ago (a foreshadowing of paranormal developments?).  However, when they moved out, the cat refused to leave with them.   He would run away from their new place and go back to the Ingham house.  Their friend Jon, a cat lover with a cat named Tom, was now occupying the house. They assumed that Midnight just liked Jon and Tom better than he did Mike and Ron. But a while later, Jon and Tom moved out of the Ingham house and moved in with Mike and Ron, leaving the house vacant.

Nobody lived at their former home, and nobody was there to take care of Midnight.  Yet the cat continued to run away and go back to that house.  Midnight had lived many places. He had not lived in the house for very long, so what was his attachment to the place?  As Mike was friends with the owner and had keys, he finally just let Midnight into the vacant house and would go over to feed him.  Midnight now had the Ingham house all to himself. But why did he want to live in this large, empty house alone?  After Mike told a friend about the cat’s puzzling behavior, she replied, “Well, maybe Midnight is not alone in that house.”  This suggestion gave Mike goosebumps.  He now believes that Midnight has become the little boy ghost’s cat.  Midnight still lives there to this day with the current residents–including the child’s spirit?

The Ingham family home on Fifth Avenue, built by Henry and later duplexed.

The Ingham family home on Fifth Avenue, built by Henry and later duplexed by him.

The last story involves an Ingham house that was wrecked to put in Mueller Park in the Wedge neighborhood.  One of the tenants, “Jen,” who occupied the upper unit just prior to the house’s demolition told me that she heard inexplicable footfalls.  On several occasions, sometimes at night, sometimes during the day, she heard what sounded like someone walking up the staircase to the second floor. When she looked out into the stairwell, no one was there. Her roommate also reported hearing the footsteps, too, when he was alone in the apartment. Jen also occasionally felt like she was not alone in the apartment, although she could see or hear nothing out of the ordinary.

I’ve kept the other addresses anonymous because these days homeowners fear would-be ghost investigators showing up on their doorsteps more than they fear being made fun of for telling such stories. However, since this house is gone and no building replaced it, I can give the  address: 2510 Bryant Ave. S., built 1898. At midnight on Halloween, perhaps you’d like to venture over to Mueller Park to where the house once stood and listen for ghostly footsteps ascending a ghostly staircase. Or perhaps it’s best just to sit at home and raise a toast to the spirits and wonder. . ..

Yesterday upon the stair
I met a man who wasn’t there
He wasn’t there again today
I wish, I wish he’d go away
When I came home last night at three
The man was waiting there for me
But when I looked around the hall
I couldn’t see him there at all!
          –from “Antigonish” by William Hughes Mearns 1899
The Ionic columns, with cornice, capital, and frieze supporting the porch roof of Ingham's family home.

Close-up of the Ionic columns, with cornice, capital, architrave, and frieze supporting the porch roof of Ingham’s family home.

I’ve collected dozens and dozens of ghost stories since my first article, “Enter Ghost”, was published in the Wedge neighborhood newspaper in October of 1978. I’ve collected stories of haunted houses, museums, hospitals, ships, highways, barns, churches, schools, theaters–you name it. If you have a story you’d like to share, please contact me at I’d love to hear about your experience.


2409 Bryant

2409 Bryant Avenue South, designed and built by T.P. Healy in 1895.

On Saturday, October 3rd, the Healy Project is offering its third Minneapolis architectural walking tour, this time showcasing the historic houses of the North Wedge, that is, the apex of the Lowry Hill East neighborhood north of West 25th Street. In addition to viewing the exterior of these historic homes, tour-goers will get to see the interior of an 1899 Healy house:

The formal staircase.

The formal staircase.

bonnie window

The triple stained glass window.

The original kitchn cabinets.

The original kitchen cabinets.

The tour will start in Mueller Park at 1 p.m. and will wind around the Norh Wedge, to Franklin Avenue and back, highlighting Healy-built houses and houses by other Minneapolis master builders. Join researchers Anders Christensen, Sean Ryan, and Ezra Gray in walking around the neighborhood, looking at historical houses built by T.P Healy, Henry Ingham, and other master builders.

2301 Colfax, built 1895, the only brick Healy design discovered so far.

2301 Colfax, like 2409 Bryant, built 1895, the only brick Healy design discovered so far.

In November 2013, the Project gave its inaugural tour featuring the Healy Block Historic District, right off the 31st exit of I-35W in south Minneapolis. These Queen Anne houses are Healy’s signature designs and the most famous of his buildings. The North Wedge tour will showcase some of his later designs, showing the transitions in styles taking place in the 1890s and early 1900s.

Detail of martins on the Martin House, 2301 Aldrich, built by Healy in 1895.

Detail of martins on the Martin House, 2301 Aldrich, also built by Healy in 1895.

Tour-goers should assemble in Mueller Park (2500 Bryant Avenue South) in Minneapolis at 1 p.m. on Saturday, October 3rd.

Tickets are $12 in advance, $15 on the day of the tour. To reserve a place on tour, sign up on Eventbrite: